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ENABLING ACTIVITIES FOR THE PREPARATION OF INITIAL NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS RELATED TO THE UNFCCC – KENYA FINAL DRAFT REPORT
Stephen Karekezi (lead consultant)
Jack Muthui and Waeni kithyoma (associate consultants)
12.5 of the UNFCCC requires non-Annex 1 parties (except those least developed
countries) to make their initial communication “within three (3) years of
the entry into force of the convention for that party, or of the availability
of financial resource”
of the above objective, the National Environment Secretariat (NES) under the
Kenyan Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (at that time referred to
as Ministry of Environmental Conservation) undertook the enabling activity
project on “Enabling activities for the preparation of Initial National
Communication related to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC)”. The Global
Environment Facility (GEF) through the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) funded this project. The project was approved in March 1999 and the
final national communication report was printed in June, 2002 marking the end
of the project. The main
objective of the project was to prepare an initial national communication
through updating of results from previous projects, fill in identified data
and analytical gaps and further enhance and strengthen Kenya’s scientific
and technical capacity in climate change as required by articles 4.1 and 12.1
of the UNFCCC.
evaluation aims at reviewing the aforementioned project, which is designed to
help Kenya in meeting its commitments to the UNFCCC. It is part of a
comprehensive review of climate change activities in Kenya, and complements
UNEP / GEF’s related environmental activities in Kenya such as projects
addressing issues of biological diversity, international waters, and ozone
of this evaluation covers the activities undertaken in the preparation of
Kenya’s first national communication. It compares the initial objectives of
the project with the actual results and assesses the impact of the project. It
also examines the technical and operational aspects of the project. Further,
it assesses the appropriateness of the project in meeting the long-term
objectives of UNEP / GEF and UNFCCC. Success of project implementation is
based achievement of the objectives of the project, sustainability of the
conducted activities and on the timeliness of meeting schedules.
line with UNFCCC guidelines for the preparation of national communications,
the project undertook the following key activities:
overall assessment is that the project was successful and met its main
objective of preparing an initial national communication document. In
addition, the results of the project have been integrated into national policy
making for example through contributions to the National Economic Survey and
National Development Plan. Papers on the various issues covered in the
national communication document have been presented at various national,
regional and international fora.
national communication report was launched during the World Bank Carbon
Finance Workshop of April 2003 where five (5) ministers (from the ministry of
energy, finance, planning, environment and transport) were in attendance.
Copies of the document were distributed.
This was a commendable effort in trying to reach top-level policy
makers and should be encouraged in future projects. Other fora, which could
prove effective, include dedicated policy makers workshops involving policy makers from
Government ministries and utilities and breakfast
briefings for high-level policy makers, including ministers and permanent
secretaries who may be available for early morning meetings. Outreach
to parliamentarians can be achieved by availing documents to the
parliament library and organizing workshops to enlighten members of parliament
on climate change issues when important bills with climate change implications
are under discussion.
of timeliness, the project implementation took longer than expected. The
project proposal indicates duration of one (1) year but the project took three
(3) years to complete. The delay can be attributed mainly to coordination
problems experienced in the working groups and to a lesser extent by delays in
accessing of funds by the Ministry due to complex internal procedures. Project
extensions were approved by UNEP. However the project duration is still within
the UNFCCC target of three (3) years as stated in article 12.5.
commendable that coordination problems that caused a delay in the finalization
of the national communication document were solved through organization of a
writing workshop, which brought together various experts to compile the
materials produced and compile the final document. Such workshops should be
encouraged in future projects.
One of the
issues highlighted in this evaluation is that no funding was provided for the
GHGs inventory as the country had received funding for the same through an
earlier GEF funded regional project. The project relied largely on secondary
data gathered from related projects, which were conducted some time back.
Some of the data was outdated and affected the overall quality of the
project. The evaluation team is
of the opinion that a comprehensive inventory of GHGs should be undertaken in
project proposal document was too ambitious in some of its targets. One of the
activities to be undertaken was a least cost mitigation analysis for various
sectors. This was not possible given the limited expertise and resources
noted that there was limited private sector and civil society participation in
project implementation. Their
participation should be encouraged in future projects since their activities
impact on climate change. A
starting point would be through involvement of associations such as the
Federation of Kenyan Employers (FKE) and the NGO Council of Kenya.
regard to gender considerations it was noted that very few women participated
in the implementation of the project. However it was commendable that the
Government appointed a woman to manage the project.
In future projects, efforts should be made to involve more women in
project was meant only to document the planned programmes for public
awareness, few activities for public awareness were also budgeted but not
completed as planned. Radio transcripts prepared were not aired and posters
and brochures produced were not distributed in key national events such as the
ASK show. It is recommended that
future projects should enhance media involvement by inviting journalists for
public awareness workshops and urging them to publish feature articles in
national and regional newspapers.
evaluation team observed that the national communication document has not been
distributed widely and this may limit the overall impact of the project. To
enhance awareness and impact of the project at the national, regional and
global level, the national communication document should at the minimum, be
distributed in its electronic version through a dedicated web-site, electronic
mailing lists and CD packs. It
should be distributed to the National Archive, National Libraries, and
University Libraries in the region.
In overall terms, the evaluators received very good co-operation from the project managers and individuals interviewed. Comments received proved valuable while compiling the final evaluation recommendations.
Below is a table providing an assessment of key performance indicators of the project.
showing Implementation Success of the Project
 Rating scale used: 1-excellent; 2-very good; 3-good; 4-satisfactory; 5-unsatisfactory
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